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Citations and Bibliographies

General Notes for MLA 9th Edition Citations

Here are some fundamental guidelines that apply to all MLA citations in a Works-Cited list:

  • All entries must be double-spaced and use a hanging indent.
  • Two authors: Key, Keegan-Michael and Jordan Peele.
  • Three or more authors: Ochoa, Ellen, et al. [“et al.” is Latin for “and others”]
  • DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers): use whenever available and instead of URLs/permalinks.

This guide includes the core elements outlined the 9th Edition of the MLA Handbook. Consult with your instructor to see if any optional elements are required for your work.

Citing Books in MLA Style

Single author

Echterling, Lennis G. Thriving: A Manual for Students in the Helping Professions. Sage, 2016.

Editor as author

Bretag, Tracey A., editor. Handbook of Academic Integrity. Springer Reference, 2016.

Online book

Dembo, Myron H., and Helena Seli. Motivation and Learning Strategies for College Success: A Focus on Self-Regulated Learning. Routledge, 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central,

Chapter in an online book

Hurst, Allison L. “Should I Stay or Should I Go?” College and the Working Class: What It Takes to Make It. Sense Publishers, 2012, pp. 43-64. SpringerLink,

Chapter by an individual author in an edited e-book

Porterfield, Daniel R. “Technology, Learning, and Campus Culture.” Remaking College: Innovation and the Liberal Arts, edited by Rebecca Chopp, et al., Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013, pp.115-122. ProQuest Ebook Central,

Corporation/organizational author (no personal author)

Survival Guide for Undocumented Students. U of California Berkeley Multicultural Community Center, 2015.

Online encyclopedia article

Foley, Carrie. “Time Management.” Encyclopedia of Business and Finance. 3rd ed., vol. 2, Macmillan Reference USA, 2014, pp. 739-741. Gale Virtual Reference Library,

Dissertation, available online

Bradley, Amber. The Impact of College Success Program on First Generation College Students in Their Preparation for College. 2019. University of Southern California, PhD dissertation. ProQuest,

Citing Articles in MLA Style

Magazine article in print

Van Auken, Julian. “Relating Student Leadership Experiences to Professional Goals.” Campus Activities Programming, vol. 48, no. 8, 2016, pp. 18-21.

Newspaper article online

Dynarski, Susan. “How to Help More College Students Graduate.” The New York Times, 19 Feb. 2016,

Journal article with a DOI from a library database

Etzel, Julian M., and Gabriel Nagy. “Students’ Perceptions of Person–Environment Fit: Do Fit Perceptions Predict Academic Success Beyond Personality Traits?” Journal of Career Assessment, vol. 24, no. 2, 2016, pp. 270-288. PsycINFO,

Journal article w/ 3 authors (no DOI, use permalink) from a library database

Johnson, Marques, et al. “A Residence Life Plan for Success for At-Risk College Students: Reviving in Loco Parentis.” College Student Journal, vol. 50, no. 2, 2016, pp. 268-274. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection,

Citing Multimedia in MLA Style

Film on DVD

College: The Other Costs. Directed by Frank Leseigneur, narrated by Martha Mellinger, Giraf Productions, 2016. DVD.

Online video — when name of creator/presenter is known

Abdaal, Ali. “How I Manage My Time - 10 Time Management Tips” YouTube, 18 Apr. 2021.

Online video — when only a username is used or the content is not created by the poster of the video

“Time Management Mistakes” YouTube, uploaded by MindToolsVideos, 5 Mar. 2014,

Online video — from a streaming service (an episode in a series)

“The Fight of the Century.” Self Made: Inspired By The Life Of Madam C.J. Walker: Miniseries, episode 1, Netflix, 2020. Netflix,

Audio CD

Davies, Rick. Siempre Salsa. Emlyn Music, 2006. CD.

Audio podcast from a streaming service

Santos, Laurie. “Why Nostalgia Ain’t so Rosy” The Happiness Lab, podcast, 16 Aug. 2021. Spotify app.

Citing Web Pages in MLA Style

Web page, individual author

Morrison, Debbie. “Five-Step Strategy for Student Success with Online Learning.” Online Learning Insights, 28 Sept. 2012.

Web page, corporation/organizational author (no personal author)

“Therapy to Improve Children’s Mental Health.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 23 Sept. 2021.

Citing Other Sources in MLA Style

Class handout

Davis, Julia. “Quantitative Research Methods.” CLG 554: Research Design & Methods, 10 Oct. 2018, State University of New York College at Plattsburgh. Handout.

Class PowerPoint presentation

Thiede, Malina. “How to Select a Research Topic.” LIB190: Critical Research Skills, 11 Dec. 2019, State University of New York College at Plattsburgh. PowerPoint Slides.

Presentation slides online

Benton, Aaron and Jennifer Retford. How To Successfully Prepare, Interview & Secure Your First Actuarial Job. 12 Apr. 2012, DW Simpson Global Actuarial Recruitment. PowerPoint Slides.